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4C/4D Imaging

  • High quality 4D time-lapse products are a key component of any reservoir monitoring project. TGS offers a comprehensive 4C/4D data processing capability.

    Leading edge processing and imaging approaches are applied to the 4C/4D data to ensure that maximum information is extracted to facilitate timely reservoir management decision making.

    Description Development complete Real data testing/ module released Production use
    Vector rotation and fidelity QC
    Water velocity correction
    Mirror migration / Migration from datum
    Cold water dynamic correction
    4D Binning
    Pre-stack 4D matching (time shifts)
    Pre-stack 4D matching (amplitude, e.g AFACK)
    Post stack 4D matching
    4D statistic (NRMS, predictability, SDR, rms ratio etc.
    PZ matching

    Land Processing Capabilities - Calgary

    Fracture detection can be analyzed using AVAZ / VVAZ Analysis (azimuth based velocity and/or amplitudes).

    P-wave fracture detection techniques are also available.
    ( http://www.arcis.com/Pages/FractureDetection.asp)


    Multicomponent processing has now evolved from a research topic to common use. TGS has experience in all field environments including:

    • Land 3C 
    • Land 9C 
    • Ocean Bottom Sensors 4C 

    ( http://www.arcis.com/Pages/MulticomponentProcessing.asp)