Paper Summary

Marine seismic data acquired with an airgun source and recorded using pressure sensors towed at a constant depth has been the standard for offshore oil and gas exploration for thirty years. An inherent limitation with this technology is that its useable bandwidth is restricted, typically to around 70 Hz (bandwidth is defined as the difference between the upper and lower useable frequencies). There are many reasons why it is desirable to utilise data with an increased bandwidth, e.g. upward of 150 Hz, for exploration and production (E&P) purposes. Such ‘broadband’ seismic data has many advantages over conventional marine streamer data. However, numerous obstacles must be overcome before broadband data can be utilised for E&P objectives. In this article, the principal mechanisms for the limitation of bandwidth in marine seismic data are reviewed, before moving on to look at the ways in which the industry has responded to the challenge of providing broadband data. Finally, we focus on the TGS Clari-Fi™ processing solution that utilises two distinct methodologies for enhancing the bandwidth of a range of seismic data types.